Benefits And Limitations Of Lithium-Ion Battery For Electric Scooter
The Lithium-ion battery is known as the “fuel tank” of your electric scooter. It holds the energy that the DC motor, lights, controller, and other accessories consume. Due to their excellent energy capacity and durability, most electric scooters would have some form of lithium ion-based battery pack. Many children’s electric scooters and other inexpensive models include batteries of lead-acid. The battery pack in a scooter consists of individual cells and electronics called a battery management device that makes it secure to run. More significant battery packs, calculated in watt-hours, have more power and can make an electric scooter go further. However, they also improve the scooter’s size and weight, making it less compact. Also, batteries are one of the scooter’s most costly elements, and the total cost rises accordingly.
Lithium-Ion Battery For Electric Scooter
Li-ion batteries, the volume of energy contained relative to their physical weight, have excellent energy density. Lithium-ion batteries, also known as dry cell “Li-Ion” or “Lithium” batteries, use lithium salts as its electrolyte to release electrons through energy-storing chemical reactions. There is a degree of risk of explosion of the lithium battery due to the damage caused by the heat and its vulnerability to high temperatures, so all manufacturers need to build sophisticated security and safety systems in compliance with EU safety directives. They also have exceptional durability, which means they can be regularly discharged and recharged or “cycled” and still retain their storage capacity. Li-ion refers to many chemistries of the battery involving the lithium-ion. Here is a list:
- Lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4)
- Lithium manganese nickel (LiNiMnCoO2)
- Lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (LiNiCoAlO2)
- Lithium nickel cobalt oxide (LiCoO2)
- Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2)
- Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4).
These chemicals for batteries represent a trade-off between protection, durability, power, and current performance.
Pros of Using Lithium-Ion Battery Electric Scooter:
1. High Density
Lithium is known to be the lightest of all elements, has the highest electrochemical potential, and has the maximum energy density per weight. Lithium-ion energy density is twice that of the regular nickel-cadmium. The loads’ characteristics are relatively good and, in terms of discharge, behave similarly to nickel-cadmium. The high 3.6-volt cell voltage allows for battery pack designs with only one cell. Today’s mobile phones operate all on one single cell.
2. Low Maintenance
Lithium-ion is a battery with low maintenance, a benefit that cannot be asserted by any other chemicals. It takes 8-9 hours to charge a lead-acid battery; on the other hand, a Li-ion battery is 90% charged in two hours and takes just three hours to charge fully. There is no need to extend the battery’s life, and no planned cycling is needed and does not need prolonged priming. One regular charge is all that’s required.
3. Relatively Low Self-Discharge
Self-discharge is less than half of that for batteries based on nickel. In contrast to nickel-cadmium, the self-discharge is less than half, making lithium-ion better suited for modern fuel gauge applications. When disposed of, lithium-ion cells do no damage.
4. No Need For A Battery Replacement
After 1.5 years of usage, lead-acid batteries’ capacity is about 50% of the initial total, while that of Li-ion batteries is about 75% of the initial capacity after three years of use. As the minimum needed life for an E-scooter is three years, while Li-ion batteries do not, current lead-acid batteries require a battery upgrade.
5. Eco-friendly Travel
Toxic gases like CO, HC, and NO are released from an engine-type scooter. However, since it does not contain any pollution, an E-scooter powered by electricity from a Li-ion battery is not toxic to the human body and the environment. Also, speciality cells can provide very high current to applications such as power tools.
Cons Of Using Lithium-Ion Battery For Electric Scooter
Certain pitfalls need to be weighed against the advantages, much as the use of other technology. While there are drawbacks to lithium-ion battery technology, this may not imply that they may not be resolved or at least mitigated and outstanding output achieved. Knowing the disadvantages ensures that the workaround will also be used to reduce the impact of the disadvantages.
1. Prone To Aging- Even If Not In Use
One of the critical drawbacks of lithium-ion batteries for consumer devices is the aging of lithium-ion batteries. After one year, whether your scooter’s battery is in use or not, some power degradation will be evident. After two to three years, the battery usually dies. It should be remembered that other compounds often have degenerative symptoms that are age-related. Batteries will also only be able to endure 500-1000 discharge cycles of charging before their power decreases. This amount is growing with the advancement of li-ion technology, but batteries need to be replaced after a while, and this may be a challenge if they are installed in the machinery.
To sustain voltage and current within safe limits, a protective circuit is necessary. Lithium-ion batteries are not as robust as certain other rechargeable materials. They need protection from being overcharged and so far discharged. In addition to this, they need to keep the present under stable limits. Therefore, one of the drawbacks of lithium-ion batteries is that they need optimized safety circuitry to ensure that they are maintained within their safe operating limits. To ensure secure operation, it is fragile and requires a safety chain.
Another part of the safety circuitry is that the cell’s temperature is controlled to stop high temperatures. The overall charge and discharge current is limited to between 1 ° C and 2 ° C on most sets. That said, although quick charging, some become a little warm on occasions.
The cost is a prominent lithium-ion battery drawback. They are usually around 40% more expensive to produce than cadmium cells made of nickel. When contemplating their use in mass-produced consumer goods where any added costs are a big concern, this is a significant consideration.
4. Technology Development
Though lithium-ion batteries have been available for many years, yet some might still regard it as an immature technology as it is still much a developing field. This can be a drawback in terms of the fact that technology does not stay stable. Continually, metals and chemicals shift. However, that can also be an asset since more options are possible since new lithium-ion technologies are being developed all the time.
While not inherently a benefit or drawback, it is possibly worth remembering that lithium acid batteries’ handling in a cold place speeds down the lithium-ions degradation phase (and other chemicals). Manufacturers prefer temperatures of about 15 ° C for transportation. Furthermore, during storage, the battery should be partly charged. Manufacturers usually recommend a charge range of about 40% to 50%.
There are several distinct benefits to the Li-ion battery process. The technology is therefore commonly used, and this is only expected to grow. Knowing the pros and cons makes it easier to make the full use of battery technology.
Depending on housing, use conditions, and battery size, electric scooter batteries can last from 2 and 4 years and between 3000 and 5000 miles. The battery life would be shorter if you don’t maintain your scooter or store it poorly.